Norman (Norman, nˈɔrmēn) is a city in Oklahoma, USA, the district center of Cleveland district, part of the Oklahoma City agglomeration. Norman is the third largest city in the state after Oklahoma City and Talsa.
|35°13'18″ pp. 97°25'06″ h.d.|
|History and geography|
|Center Height||357 m|
|Time zone||UTC-6:00, summer UTC-5:00|
|Population||110,925 people (2010)|
|Nationalities|| white - 84.7%, |
African Americans - 4.3%,
Native Americans - 4.7%,
Asians - 3.8%,
Hawaiians - 0.05%,
Mixed races - 4.01 %
other races - 1.9%
|Phone code||+1 405|
|Media files on Wikimedia Commons|
Norman was founded during the land races of 1889, which opened the door for American pioneers to former Indian lands and undistributed areas. The city was named after the first landlord, Abner Norman, and was officially registered on 13 May 1891. The city's economy is based on higher education and related research. About 30,000 students study at the University of Oklahoma. The university is known for its football program, and up to 80,000 people come to the city from all over the state for home games by the Oklahoma Suners football team. The University also owns several museums, including the Fred Jones Jr. Museum of Art, which owns the largest collection of French impressionists ever owned by an American university.
The National Weather Center, located in Norman, is a unique combination of university, federal, and state organizations working together to better understand the Earth's atmosphere. Norman is located in the Tornado alley, the geographic region with the largest number of tornadoes. In addition, the US Meteorological Center, a branch of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, is located in the city. The facility is used to predict severe storms and tornadoes.
Despite its location in an area with an elevated risk of tornadoes, in 2008 CNN Money magazine ranked Norman sixth on the list of small cities in the United States, where it is best to live.
In 1803, after the Louisiana purchase, Oklahoma took over the US. Before the U.S. Civil War, the government began to relocate five civilized tribes, five indigenous American tribes, to the newly created Indian territories (now the east of Oklahoma). Under the 1832 and 1833 treaties, the present territory of Norman belonged to the Criki tribe.
After the Civil War, the screams were accused of aiding the Confederate States of America, and in 1866 their lands moved back to the US. Soon after, the Arbuble trail, part of the Chisholm trail, was expanded to improve livestock transportation from Texas to Kansas Railways. In the early 1870's, a study began on the empty lands adjacent to the Arbuble trail. The U.S. Department of Land signed a contract with a professional engineer to study the state of Oklahoma. Abner Norman, a young surveyor, became the chairman and leader of a team that studied the Indian Territory. Norman's group set up their camp at a place where the Klassen and Lindsay streets now cross. One day, several people from Norman's group decided to joke about their young boss and burned the inscription "Norman Camp" on a large elbow near the well. In 1887, Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway started to serve the region, which was later opened for settlement in the framework of the land races of 1889. The settlers have kept the name "Norman" for their village.
On 22 April 1889, at least 150 settlers spent the night at an improvised camping site, and the next morning construction began in the town. Almost immediately, two prominent young city businessmen - former Purcell freight agent Delbert Larsh and the main cashier at the train station Thomas Waggoner - lobbied the local government to build the first university in Norman. Both were interested in the settlement's growth and decided that it was easier to establish the city's first state university than to try to move the capital to Norman. On December 19, 1890, Larsha and Waggoner managed to hold Council Bill 114, which established the University of Oklahoma in Norman. The event took place 18 years before the state of Oklahoma was formed.
The city of Norman was officially registered on 13 May 1891. In the following decades, the city continued to grow. By 1902, there were two banks, two hotels, a flour mill and other establishments in the city center; By 1913, the city had more than 3,700 inhabitants. At that time, Oklahoma Railways decided to carry a light railroad from Oklahoma City to Moore across Norman, further accelerating the city's population growth. In the 1940s, the railroad began to serve mainly freight traffic, and the city's population grew to 11,429 by 1940.
In 1941, the University of Oklahoma and the Norman authorities established the Max Westheimer airfield, a university runway that was leased out to the US Navy as a training center in 1942. During World War II, the center was used for training combat pilots. A second training center and a naval hospital were later established. After World War II, the runway was brought back under the control of the university. It's currently called Westheimer Airport at Oklahoma University. After the war, the remaining military and returning veterans, who continued their training in Norman, contributed to the city's population, which by 1950 stood at 27,006 . From 1952 to 1959, during the Korean War, naval forces again used the city as one of their training bases.
After the construction of the I-35 interstate highway in June 1959, Norman became a dormitory area in Oklahoma City, which resulted in a rapid increase in the city's population. In 1960, it was 33,412, and by the end of the decade it had grown to 52,117. In the 1960s, as a result of the annexation of neighboring territories, the area of the city increased by 450 km2. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the city continued its growth and the population of Norman increased from 95,694 in 2000 to 110,925 in 2010.
Norman has a total area of 490.8 km², of which 458.5 km² (93.30%) is land-based and 32 km² (6.60%) is water-filled.
The center of the united region is 30 km from the center of Oklahoma City and is separated from it by the city of Moore. Norman is part of Oklahoma City, the capital. According to the 2010 census, 110,925 people live in Norman, making it the third largest city in Oklahoma and the 235th largest in the United States. The city is the district center of Cleveland County.
Norman and its surrounding areas are mostly on the plain at an altitude of about 357 meters above sea level. In the western part of Norman is a prairie, and in the eastern part, including Lake Thunderburd, there are 24 km2 lakes and forests. The highest point of the city is 379 meters above sea level, the lowest point of the city is 296 meters above sea level.
|Average maximum, °C||9||13||18||24||27||31||34||34||30||24||17||11||23|
|Average temperature, °C||3||6||11||16||20||25||27||27||23||17||10||5||16|
|Medium minimum, °C||-3||-1||3||9||14||18||20||20||16||10||4||-1||9|
|Precipitation rate, mm||30||40||70||80||130||100||70||70||100||80||60||40||890|
Management and Policy
The Norman Police Department is responsible for policing and law enforcement. In 2011, the crime index in Norman was 28% lower than the US average. In 2011, the city witnessed two murders, 67 rapes, 36 robberies, 53 assaults and 811 robberies.
Norman has three twin cities:
- Clermont-Ferrand, France
- Colima, Mexico
- Seyka, Japan
According to the 2010 census, 110,925 people, 44,661 households and 24,391 families lived in Norman. The population density was 208.7 people per square kilometer. Race composition: 84.7% white, 4.3% African, 4.7% Native American, 3.8% Asian, 0.1% Hawaiian, 1.9% other races and 5.5% mixed races. Latin Americans made up 6.4% of the population.
Of the 44,661 households, 25.0 per cent had children under 18 years of age, 41.5 per cent were married and lived together, 10.1 per cent had a female head of household without a husband and 44.2 per cent were not related. 30.7 per cent of households were one person and 7.3 per cent were one person aged 65 or over. The average household size was 2.33 people, the average family size was 2.94 people.
Building by age was 5.8% under 5 years, 5.7% from 5 to 9, 5.2% from 10 to 14, 8.9% from 15 to 19, 16.0% from 20 to 24, 9.0% from 25 to 29, 6 6 % from 30 to 34, 5.6 % from 35 to 39, 5.3 % from 40 to 44, 5.9 % from 45 to 49, 5.9 % from 50 to 54, 5.4 % from 55 to 59, 4.6 % 60 to 64, 3.2% from 65 to 69, 2.3% from 70 to 74, 1.8% from 75 to 79, 1.4% from 80 to 84, and 1.3% over 85. The average age was 29.6 years. Men make up 49.7 per cent of the population and women 50.3 per cent.
The average annual household income in the city is $44,396, and the average household income is $62,826. Men have an average income of $41,859, while women $35,777. Per capita income for the city is $24,585. About 11.8% of households and 19.2% of the population are below the poverty line, of which 18.9% are under the age of 18 and 8.9% are under the age of 65 and above.
Although no data on religious preferences were collected during the census, according to a 2000 study by Dale Jones of the Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodie, 50.2 % of Norman's population belongs to a religious community. Among them, 43.6% belong to the Southern Baptist Convention, 15.0% to the Roman Catholic Church, 13.0% to the United Methodist Convention, 3.3% to the Assembly of God, 2.8% to the Church of Christ, 2.1% to the Sea Monas, 2.1% to the Christian Church and the Church of Christ, 1.9% to the disciples of Christ, 1.7% to the Presbyterians, and 14.6% to other Christian denominations.
The University of Oklahoma is the largest university in Oklahoma, with approximately 30,000 students. It was founded in 1890, ten years before the state of Oklahoma was founded. The school consists of two campuses: the main one is in Norman and the other in Oklahoma City. In 2007, Princeton Review named the University of Oklahoma one of the best higher education institutions in terms of learning success and cost. The university ranks first in the number of National Merit Scholars scholarships. It taught 28 Rhodes fellows. PC Magazine and Princeton Review included the university in the list of "20 top-tech universities" in 2006 and 2008, and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching classifies it as a research university with "high research activities."
The University of Oklahoma is also known for its sports program. His sports teams have won numerous national awards, including seven championships in the first NCAA division of the National Football Championship.
The city is home to the Moore Norman Technology Center. The factory was founded in 1972 and has received a Gold Star School Award many times from the Oklahoma Technology Centers Association. The Franklin Road campus consists of six buildings with a total area of 30,100 m2. The center employs 207 people.
Primary and secondary schools
Norman Public Schools, a Norman school district, consists of 15 primary schools, 4 secondary schools and 2 high schools. The district trains 17,000 people, making it the largest in the state.
Noble Public Schools is a school district that serves the south-eastern part of Norman and the adjacent city of Noble. It consists of two primary schools, a secondary school, a secondary school and a high school.
Government schools Little Ex is a school district serving the eastern rural part of Norman. It is the smallest district and consists of primary, junior and high schools.
There are several private schools in Norman:
- Catholic School of All Saints - from nurseries to 8th grade
- From kindergarten to 10th grade, Blue Eagle Christian Academy
- Christian Community School - from kindergarten to 12th grade
- Norman Christian Academy - from nursery to 7th grade
- Robinson Street Academy - from kindergarten to 12th grade
- Rose Rock School - from nursery to kindergarten
- Terra Verde Discaveri School - from kindergarten to 2nd grade
- Trinity Lutheran School - from nursery to 6th grade
- Classic Christian Academy Veritas - from nursery to 12th grade
The city has Norman Public Library, which is part of the Pioneer Library System, serving the southern suburbs of Oklahoma City. The library also has an agreement with the Metropolitan Library System Oklahoma City. This allows visitors to search for books in these two systems. Books can be booked free of charge and delivered to the local library. In addition, a collection of periodicals, audiobooks, films and research materials is located in the library.
The Bizzell Memorial Library at the University of Oklahoma is the largest library in the state and contains more than 5 million volumes in its funds. In addition to books, the library's archives contain more than 5,200 meters of manuscripts, 1.6 million photographs and more than 1.5 million maps. Libraries belong to more than 50 books, published before 1500.
The University of Oklahoma finances many sporting events in Norman. The institution is known for its football program, whose team won seven championship titles in the first NCAA division of the National Football Championship. In addition, the university holds the best percentage of wins in the first division of FBS of all teams since 1936, and the team has participated four times in the national championship of BCS since 1998. During the football season, Oklahoma Suners makes a big contribution to Norman's economy. On the day of the game, more than 80,000 people from all over the state gather in the city. During this time, local entrepreneurs, especially near the university campus and Corner campus, are getting big profits. The U.S. Football University Program is one of the ten most profitable student programs in the U.S. in terms of money collection, bringing in about $59 million in home games.
In 1951 and 1994, the University baseball team became the NCAA champion, while the women's softball team won the national champion title in 2000. Since 2001 the gymnastic national team of the University has won four champion titles.
The university funds 19 sports disciplines: 9 men's (baseball, basketball, track and field cross, American football, golf, gymnastics, tennis, cross-country track and field and wrestling) and 10 women (basketball, track and field cross, golf gymnastics, rowing, soccer, softball, tennis, track and volleyball).
The Norman Regional Health System provides health services to residents of the city and the south of the central state of Oklahoma. The Porter Avenue office, located north of Norman center, is a general hospital with 337 beds and provides a wide range of medical services, including emergency medical care. In October 2009, HealthOptiPlex was launched in the west of the city. This state-of-the-art medical facility, with a capacity of 152, specializes in cardiology, cardiovascular diseases, and has a women's and children's department.
The city's air service is mainly provided through the Will Rogers Airport, located in Oklahoma City, about 30 km north-west of Norman. Every day, the Will Rogers Airport serves more than 70 regular commercial flights operated by 22 airlines in more than 19 cities across the country. A large part of the routes are flights to major transit airports in the United States. Will Rogers Airport is one of the few major airports in Oklahoma that does not have an international flight schedule. However, it is the first airport in the state in terms of passenger traffic. In 2007, more than 3.74 million people benefited from the airport.
The city also has a Max Westheimer airport run by Oklahoma University. This airport is one of two spare airports at Will Rogers Airport. Max Westheimer Airport can receive both conventional and jet aircraft.
The bus service in Norman is represented by the Cleveland Area Rapid Transit managed by the University of Oklahoma. CART provides bus service to the offices of the Social Security Administration located in Mura, as well as to the Metro Transit transport hub in Oklahoma City. Metro Transit serves bus and trolley bus service to Oklahoma City and links to Will Rogers Airport.
In 2008 CART became the 39th public transport system in the USA, appeared in Google Transit, a website that allows users through the Internet to plan their journey. In 2010 CART buses were equipped with a GPS system allowing travelers to see the location of buses and the time of arrival through CART and Google sites. CART buses carry more than 1.3 million people annually.
- ↑ Best Places to Live. CNN Money Magazine. Case date: November 9, 2013.
- ↑ 1 2 345 6 The University of Oklahoma: A History (Volume I) — University of Oklahoma Press .
- ↑ 1 2 About the City. City of Norman. Case date: January 7, 2012.
- ↑ Oklahoma's Land Runs. Oklahoma Genealogy Web. Case date: January 13, 2012.
- ↑ Norman: Our. City of Norman. Case date: October 2, 2010.
- ↑ 1 2 3 45 O'Dell, Larry. Norman (unreachable link). Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History. Case date: July 27, 2013. Archived April 26, 2014.
- ↑ 1 2 3 Census of Population and Housing (not available). US Census Bureau. Case date: January 7, 2012. Archived February 8, 2006.
- ↑ Max Westheimer Field. rv-9.com. Case date: August 1, 2010. Archived December 27, 2010.
- ↑ Cockerell, Penny. "50 Years: As the intersection of Interstates 35, 40, and 44, Oklahoma is at America's crossroads." The Daily Oklahoman 29 June 2006: 2A.
- ↑ 1 2 Biggest Cities in Oklahoma. GeoNames. Case date: October 2, 2010.
- ↑ Places. U.S. Census Bureau. Case date: January 7, 2012. Archived August 2, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 U.S. Gazetteer Files. U.S. Census Bureau. Case date: July 24, 2013. Archived August 2, 2012.
- ↑ OMB Bulletin No. 10-02. U.S. Office of Management and Budget. Case date: July 31, 2010. Archived January 15, 2010.
- ↑ 1 2 3 45 Profile of General Population (not available). US Census Bureau. Case date: July 24, 2013. Archived August 15, 2014.
- ↑ American FactFinder (unreachable link). U.S. Census Bureau. Case date: January 13, 2012. Archived February 1, 2012.
- ↑ Find a County. National Association of Counties. Case date: January 13, 2012.
- ↑ Climate of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Climatological Survey. Case date: January 7, 2012.
- ↑ The Climate of Cleveland County. Oklahoma Climatological Survey. Case date: January 7, 2012.
- ↑ Crime in Norman, Oklahoma. City-Data.com. Case date: July 31, 2010.
- ↑ Sister Cities. City of Norman. Case date: January 7, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 3 4 5 678 Norman, Oklahoma. City Data. Case date: January 9, 2012.
- ↑ Select Economic Characteristics. US Census Bureau. Case date: January 10, 2012.
- ↑ 1 2 3 4 OU Facts (not available link). OU. Case date: August 29, 2009. Archived March 16, 2018.
- ↑ Summary of Oklahoma's Colleges, Universities, and Career Schools. Education Portal. Case date: August 29, 2009.
- ↑ America's Best Value Colleges. The Princeton Review. Case date: June 7, 2006.
- ↑ 28th OU Rhodes Scholar to Study English (not available link). OU Daily. Case date: January 9, 2012. Archived June 18, 2011.
- ↑ The Rhodes to Oxford. OU Foundation. Case date: January 9, 2012. Archived August 26, 2008.
- ↑ Parker-Perry, Susie Top 20 Wired Colleges. PC Magazine (20 December 2006). Case date: April 9, 2007.
- ↑ Griffith, Eric Top 20 Wired Colleges. PC Magazine (September 3, 2008). Case date: September 3, 2008.
- ↑ University of Oklahoma Norman Campus. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Case date: June 7, 2006.
- ↑ 1 2 Seven National Championships (not available link). SoonerSports. Case date: October 2, 2010. Archived September 28, 2010.
- ↑ About MNTC. Moore Norman Technology Center. Case date: December 6, 2009. Archived January 7, 2010.
- ↑ Franklin Road Campus. Moore-Norman Technology Center. Case date: August 6, 2010. Archived July 27, 2010.
- ↑ Norman Public Schools. Norman Public Schools. Case date: July 31, 2010.
- ↑ Norman Schools. Local School Directory. Case date: January 9, 2012.
- ↑ Oklahoma's Ten Largest School Districts (unreachable link). All4Ed. Case date: January 9, 2012. Archived March 12, 2012.
- ↑ Noble Public Schools. Noble Public Schools. Case date: December 28, 2011. Archived December 24, 2011.
- ↑ Little Axe Public Schools. Little Axe Public Schools. Case date: April 3, 2011. Archived April 22, 2011.
- ↑ Norman Christian Academy. Education Bug. Case date: January 9, 2012.
- ↑ roserockschool. roserockschool (april 7, 2011). Case date: April 6, 2012.
- ↑ Terra Verde Discovery School. Terra Verde Discovery School. Case date: January 9, 2012.
- ↑ Norman Public Library). Pioneer Library System. Case date: August 6, 2010. Archived December 5, 2010.
- ↑ 1 2 What is Interlibrary Loan? link). Norman Public Library. Case date: January 9, 2012. Archived January 17, 2012.
- ↑ OU Libraries' Facts available). University of Oklahoma. Case date: August 6, 2010. Archived August 17, 2009.
- ↑ Oklahoma Football Quick Facts (not available link). SoonerSports.com. University of Oklahoma. Case date: August 21, 2007. Archived August 20, 2007.
- ↑ BCS Champions. Ticket City. Case date: January 10, 2012.
- ↑ BCS, Alliance & Coalition games, year-by-year. BCS Football. Case date: January 10, 2012.
- ↑ Norman. Discover Oklahoma. Case date: January 13, 2012.
- ↑ Norman business look for home game boost. Norman Transcript. Case date: September 7, 2012. Archived January 30, 2013.
- ↑ Champs to Return for Diamond Dinner. OU Daily. Case date: January 10, 2012. Archived July 29, 2013.
- ↑ OU Softball Coach Named to Hall of Fame (not available link). OU Daily. Case date: January 10, 2012. Archived July 29, 2013.
- ↑ No. 1 Men's Gymnastics Team to Gear Up for Season (Unavailable link). OU Daily. Case date: January 10, 2012. Archived July 29, 2013.
- ↑ OU Athletics (Unavailable link). University of Oklahoma. Case date: January 10, 2012. Archived May 1, 2012.
- ↑ About Us available link). Norman Regional Health System. Case date: August 6, 2010. Archived November 2, 2010.
- ↑ 1 2 HealthOptiPlex Checkup. Norman Transcript. Case date: August 6, 2010. Archived January 30, 2013.
- ↑ Welcome to Health. Norman Regional Health System. Case date: August 6, 2010.
- ↑ Aviation Activity Reportavailable link). Will Rogers World Airport. Case date: August 6, 2010. Archived October 7, 2010.
- ↑ Airport statistics (unavailable link - history ).
- ↑ Max Westheimer Airport. University of Oklahoma. Case date: August 14, 2007.
- ↑ Airport Services. Max Westheimer Airport. Case date: August 6, 2010.
- ↑ 1 2 About CART. CART. Case date: October 2, 2010.
- ↑ About Us. Metro Transit. Case date: October 2, 2010.
- ↑ CART Partners with Google Transit. The Norman Transcript. Case date: January 12, 2012. Archived July 16, 2012.
- ↑ Google Transit Graduates from Labs. Google. Case date: January 12, 2012.
- ↑ GPS Technology Informs Riders Of Bus Location (unavailable link). OU Daily. Case date: January 12, 2012. Archived August 19, 2012.
- Official Website
- Norman Convention & Visitor’s Bureau